Werner Winkler U Follow us on Twitter uboatnet. All U-boat profiles! Also includes 14 foreign submarines and all the U-boats laid down but not commissioned. Are any U-boats left today and where are they? Set of maps graphically showing various aspects of the U-boat War, including where the U-boats were lost at sea. A simple page on the most successful boats and the commander that ensured that their boat performed.
Huge new section covering all the convoys hit by U-boats in the war plus detailed information on the convoy routes used. Also a page on the most famous convoy battles. A new superset of pages which deals with the various technical aspects of the U-boat war, both in offense and defence.
Here we'll list interesting news within our scope, such as U-boat restorations, discoveries, dive sites and more. Events on this day What happened on 19 July? Commander file Werner Winkler U - More officers. U-boat of the day U - 4 patrols 1 ship sunk 1, tons. U-boat Finder. Over 21, ships.
Secret German World War II Base Rediscovered Near North Pole
Enter your search terms. U-boat Index All U-boat profiles! U-boats Today Are any U-boats left today and where are they? U-boat Types 41 pages of techical info covering all the U-boat types, ranging from the smallest coastal boats to the huge supply and mine vessels. U-boat Fates All the known fates, losses, scuttled, surrendered etc. Locations, types and contracts. Dive Into History Here you can learn about the U-boat wrecks that you can scuba dive onto.
Histories A set of pages dealing with U-boat related history. U-boat books Literally thousands of books related to the U-boat War of both wars. U-boat movies See our selection of U-boat movies.
Maps Set of maps graphically showing various aspects of the U-boat War, including where the U-boats were lost at sea. U-boat Operations Where did the boats fight? Covers both combat areas and special missions.
Most successful U-boats A simple page on the most successful boats and the commander that ensured that their boat performed. Convoy Battles Huge new section covering all the convoys hit by U-boats in the war plus detailed information on the convoy routes used. Technologies A new superset of pages which deals with the various technical aspects of the U-boat war, both in offense and defence.Ruprecht Fischer U Follow us on Twitter uboatnet.Hitler's Last Deadly Secret - U 864
The German U-boat of World War Two was designed to operate mostly on the surface and submerge only for evasion or for rare daylight attacks. In the surfaced U-boat was even more secure near a convoy than submerged as the allied ASDIC could detect him underwater but was useless against a surface vessel.
It was only with the continued Allied inventions that the U-boat was forced to spend more and more time underwater and then it was only running on a limited electric motors which only managed a few knots and had very limited endurance. In when the German army defeated the Netherlands a stroke of luck landed up on the German Navy, namely the Dutch invention the German called somewhat rudely the Schnorchel.
The Dutch navy had been experimenting as early as on the submarines O 19 and O 20 with a simple pipe system which enabled a periscoping submarine to operate its diesels and thus have almost unlimited underwater range.
Earlier experiments with this idea by the Dutch Navy had begun earlier in the inter-war period. The German Navy paid little attention they actually thought about this system in as a means to take fresh air into the boats but saw no need to run the diesels underwater and in fact had the schorchel removed from the 3 captured Dutch submarines UD-3UD-4 and UD-5 in 1 The Royal Navy also did the same with the Dutch boats that escaped the German forces.
It was not until when more and more U-boats were lost to the Allied counterattack that the system fell into favor with the high command. Above is the Schnorchel installation on board the U The boat is on display at Laboe, Germany. The first boat to be fitted with the Schnorchel was U which experimented with the equipment in the Baltic during the summer of but operational boats didn't start to use it until early and even as late as June only about half of the boats stationed in the French bases had Schnorchels fitted.
On type VII boats the folding mast was fitted on the port side see photo on the left while on the IX types the mast was on the starboard side. Second were the various disposal problems associated with the permanently submerged boat; garbage had to be stored internally and further fouled up the boat.
Third was the problem with the initial schnorchel masts that they tended to close up and thus the diesels, being starved of air from above, sucked all available air from the boat itself and causing extremely harmful ear pains and sometimes even damaged ear drums. Events on this day What happened on 19 July? Commander file Ruprecht Fischer U - More officers. U-boat of the day U - 4 patrols 1 ship sunk 1, tons. U-boat Finder.
From the Gallery U surrenders at Nova Scotia. Over 21, ships.
Technologies The Schnorchel. Enter your search terms. The Floating valve type left is seen here with the rare but sophisticated Naxos radar detector mast. The Naxos was never available in quantity to the U-boat arm.Georg-Werner Fraatz UU On this site you will find all the German U-boats of both World Wars, their commanding officers and operations including all Allied ships attackedtechnological information and much more.
You can also browse our large photo gallery and thousands of U-boat books and movies. While hundreds of U-boats were lost some of the boats are preserved as museums today. We also have a huge section covering the Allied forces and their struggle with the U-boat threat - not to mention the Pacific war. It had unfortunately been missing for a few weeks.
Now it shows the boats at sea on this day in for example. Also U-boat markers on the patrol maps show more details on patrol, such as if the boat was lost on this patrol. Very exciting day! Now all maps on uboat. This is a stop-gap until I finish a better solution I am working on.
Want to see inside a U-boat?? Then look here for 42 stunning images!
U-boat of the day U - 4 patrols 1 ship sunk 1, tons. U-boat Finder. Over 21, ships. U in the Black Sea. U in its bunker in Chicago. The Finnish submarine Vesikko at Suomenlinna. Enter your search terms.Follow us on Twitter uboatnet. Otto Weddigen in his small U-9 sank 3 British cruisers in less than hour on 22 Sep From then on the U-boats, although never committed fully until well intocaused the Allies very serious problems and scored incredible victories while suffering their own losses as well.
Read about some of the more famous officers during the war. See the complete listing of commanders or view the most successful officers. Type U 2. See all U-boat types of WWI. She was hit by UC 47 on 8 Feb A simple page listing the main sources and contributors of this section. Events on this day What happened on 19 July? Commander Search. U-boat Finder. From the Gallery Model of U at sea. Over 21, ships. Enter your search terms.
All U-boats U-boats commissioned before the end of the war. U-boat fates Read about U-boats losses, surrendered or interned boats etc. The Officers Read about some of the more famous officers during the war.
U-boat types Type U 2 41 types of 6 main classes of boats became operational. Shipyards and builders 10 shipyards built U-boats that were ready during WWI. View our ships attacked database of over 7, ships in 7, incidents. Sources A simple page listing the main sources and contributors of this section.While the German term refers to any submarinethe English one in common with several other languages refers specifically to military submarines operated by Germany, particularly in the First and Second World Wars.
Although at times they were efficient fleet weapons against enemy naval warships, they were most effectively used in an economic warfare role commerce raiding and enforcing a naval blockade against enemy shipping. The primary targets of the U-boat campaigns in both wars were the merchant convoys bringing supplies from Canada and other parts of the British Empireand from the United States to the United Kingdom and during the Second World War to the Soviet Union and the Allied territories in the Mediterranean.
Austro-Hungarian Navy submarines were also known as U-boats. The first submarine built in Germany, the three-man Brandtauchersank to the bottom of Kiel harbor on 1 February during a test dive. Dredging operations in rediscovered Brandtaucher ; it was later raised and put on historical display in Germany.
The Imperial German Navy commissioned it on 14 December The U class of —13 saw the first diesel engine installed in a German navy boat. At the start of World War I inGermany had 48 submarines of 13 classes in service or under construction. Retired init remains on display at the Deutsches Museum in Munich. In the Gallipoli Campaign in early in the eastern Mediterranean, German U-boats, notably the Uprevented close support of allied troops by 18 pre-Dreadnought battleships by sinking two of them.
For the first few months of the war, U-boat anticommerce actions observed the "prize rules" of the time, which governed the treatment of enemy civilian ships and their occupants.
This was cited as a retaliation for British minefields and shipping blockades. Under the instructions given to U-boat captains, they could sink merchant ships, even potentially neutral ones, without warning. The sinking claimed 1, lives, of them American civilians, and the attack of this unarmed civilian ship deeply shocked the Allies. According to the ship's manifest, Lusitania was carrying military cargo, though none of this information was relayed to the citizens of Britain and the United States who thought that the ship contained no ammunition or military weaponry whatsoever and it was an act of brutal murder.
Munitions that it carried were thousands of crates full of ammunition for rifles, 3-inch artillery shells, and also various other standard ammunition used by infantry. The sinking of the Lusitania was widely used as propaganda against the German Empire and caused greater support for the war effort.
A widespread reaction in the U. The initial U. The U. This, however, removed the effectiveness of the U-boat fleet, and the Germans consequently sought a decisive surface action, a strategy that culminated in the Battle of Jutland.
It was necessary to return to effective anticommerce warfare by U-boats. Vice-Admiral Reinhard ScheerCommander in Chief of the High Seas Fleetpressed for all-out U-boat war, convinced that a high rate of shipping losses would force Britain to seek an early peace before the United States could react effectively. The renewed German campaign was effective, sinking 1.Germany was the first country to employ submarines in war as substitutes for surface commerce raiders.
At the outset of World War IGerman U-boats, though numbering only 38, achieved notable successes against British warships; but because of the reactions of neutral powers especially the United States Germany hesitated before adopting unrestricted U-boat warfare against merchant ships.
The decision to do so in February was largely responsible for the entry of the United States into the war. The U-boat campaign then became a race between German sinkings of merchant ships and the building of ships, mainly in the United States, to replace them.
In AprilAllied and neutral ships totalingtons were sunk, and it seemed likely that the German gamble would succeed. However, the introduction of convoysthe arrival of numerous U.
By the end of the war Germany had built U-boats and had under construction. The peak U-boat strength of was reached in Octoberbut there were never more than about 60 at sea at one time.
In —18 the destruction—more than 10, tons—caused by the U-boats was especially remarkable in view of the small size less than l, tonsfrailty, and vulnerability of the craft.
The Armistice terms of required Germany to surrender all its U-boats, and the Treaty of Versailles forbade it to possess them in the future. Britain was ill-prepared in for a resumption of unrestricted submarine warfare, and during the early months of World War II the U-boats, which at that time numbered only 57, again achieved great successes.
The first phase, during which the U-boats generally operated singly, ended in Marchby which time many merchant ships were sailing in convoy, trained escort groups were becoming available, and aircraft were proving their effectiveness as anti-U-boat weapons. In the next phase the Germans, having acquired air and U-boat bases in Norway and western France, were able to reach much farther out into the Atlanticand their U-boats began to operate in groups called wolf packs by the British.
One U-boat would shadow a convoy and summon others by radio, and then the group would attack, generally on the surface at night.
These tactics succeeded until radar came to the aid of the escorts and until convoys could be given continuous sea and air escort all the way across the Atlantic in both directions. After the U-boats lost 41 of their number during that month, they withdrew temporarily from the Atlantic. In the next phase, U-boats were sent to remote waters where unescorted targets could still be found. In the final phase the U-boats—then fitted with the snorkel schnorkel ventilating tube, which permitted extended underwater travel and greatly reduced the effectiveness of radar—returned to the coastal waters around the British Islesbut they sank few ships and themselves suffered heavy losses.
In World War II Germany built 1, U-boats, of which were destroyed and the remainder surrendered or were scuttled to avoid surrender at the capitulation.
Of the U-boats sunk at sea, Allied surface ships and shore-based aircraft accounted for the great majority and respectively. Article Media.
Info Print Print.No other vessel of war presented poorer living conditions than that of a U-boat. Each war patrol could take anywhere between three weeks to six months. During this time, U-boat crews were not able to bathe, shave or change their clothes. Its not difficult to imagine how unpleasant life would be for someone who had not taken a bath or had a change of clothing for six months. The crew of a U-boat is made up of specialists and seamen. Specialist crew, such as radioman, torpedomen and machineman were responsible for the operation and maintenance of equipment aboard the U-boat.
Other general duty tasks such as loading torpedoes, standing watch on the bridge, operating deck guns and housekeeping activities were performed by the seamen. Specialist crew, such as the two radiomen had three four hour shifts between 8am and 8pm, and two six hour shifts during the night. Standing on watch duty during stormy weather was frowned upon by the crewmen.
The harsh environment of the North Atlantic meant that icy waves constantly swept over the conning tower, completely submerging the boat and the watch crew for brief periods. They were issued with special foul-weather coats, but these did little to keep them dry.
In addition, crewmen had little chance to dry their clothes during a patrol. The watch crews were secured by safety lines to keep them from being washed overboard. Crew habitability ranked very low on the priority list of German U-boats. Fresh water was limited and strictly rationed for drinking, especially when they had opted to fill one of their water tanks with diesel fuel to extend their operational range. Washing and showering were not permitted, with all activities of shaving, laundry being postponed throughout the entire duration of the patrol.
They were allowed only the clothes on their backs and a single change of underwear and socks. To remove salt from their skin caused by seawater exposure, crews were issued with special saltwater soap, but this was unpopular as it left a scummy film on the skin.
To control body odour, a deodorant was used. Crew space was at a premium with each crew assigned one locker for personal belongings. And in order to maximize the limited space, the forward torpedo room also formed the crew quarters.
But at the beginning of a patrol, six bunks had to be folded up to accommodate space for two additional torpedoes. Not until the first two torpedoes had been launched, that the spare torpedoes could be loaded into the torpedo tubes, freeing up the much needed bunks in the living quarters.
Privacy was non-existent.
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